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Published: Thursday 25 July, 2013

buy cheap isabel marant sneakers buy cheap isabel marant sneakers ´╗┐Countering Copenhagens Carbon Footprint

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, beginning Monday Dec. 7, will draw legions of people to Copenhagen from 192 countries. Traveling to Denmark sometimes from the far corners of the Earth not to mention feeding attendees, accommodating them, networking them with each other and their offices back home, and more will expend huge amounts of energy. And spew plenty of the very carbon dioxide that the meeting negotiators are trying to rein in. So the Danish government launched a program aimed at offsetting the carbon footprint of this gathering with bricks.

Or brick ovens, anyway. Framework Convention on Climate Change, or UNFCCC, has tentatively estimated that energy expenditures associated with the meeting will likely lead to emissions of around 40,000 tons of CO2.or its equivalent. So the Danish Energy Agency and World Bank are working with a Bangladeshi investment bank Industrial and Infrastructure Development Finance Company to arrange financing for the replacement of 20 dirty and very energyinefficient brick kiln units around the Bangladesh capital of Dhaka.

Only four of the new kilns are currently in place. But when all 20 are up and running theyll reduce an estimated 100,000 tons of CO2 annually, says Christian van Maarschalkerweerd. Hes the chief program coordinator on climate and energy with the Danish Energy Agency in Copenhagen.

The carbonoffset kilns will bring a new technology to Bangladesh. Called hybrid Hoffman kilns, these brickmaking facilities have been spreading throughout China for a decade. Like traditional Bangladeshi kilns, they heat with coal. But because e buy cheap isabel marant sneakers ach kiln uses only half as much fuel to operate, the new technology is much cleaner. It reduces CO2 by around 50 percent and the particulate matter emission is reduced even more, Maarschalkerweerd says.

Those particulates are dustsized motes of carbon and other materials that can be inhaled deeply into the lungs, contributing to respiratory, heart and other buy cheap isabel marant sneakers ails. And current brickbuilding operations at Bangladeshs many thousands of kilns contribute substantial air pollution.

Brick making is one of the most polluting enterprises in this country. Typically a mom and pop enterprise, it is a leading source of greenhouse gases, spewing some 3 million tons into the atmosphere each year, according to the United Nations. And to keep costs low, some facilities burn more than dirty high sulfur coal including used tires and wood.

Indeed, Maarschalkerweerd observes, During the dry season, when all of the old kilns are operating, the air pollution in Dhaka is the worlds worst.

So the new kilns will pay benefits not only for climate but also the health of people living in the vicinity of these new facilities.

And benefits dont end there. Traditional Bangladeshi kilns are open topped and sit at ground level. Which means they are out of commission throughout the rainy season, perhaps half the year. The enclosed, elevated kilns to be installed as part of the Copenhagen carbonoffsets program will be able to operate yearround, Maarschalkerweerd says, providing steady employment.

The newkiln program will also provide safety gear for workers protections theyd not previously had, in addition to guaranteed visits every other month by doctors to check on worker health.

While the pilot scale introduction of this technology will only help a small fraction of Bangladeshi brick makers, Our hope is, of course, that once we can show that it can be done, the technology will spread, Maarschalkerweerd says.

According to the United Nations, each kiln system is about $550,000. Experience in China has indicated that the new kiln technology results in stronger, higher quality and lowercost bricks. Indeed, payback of installing the new technology can be just three years for a facility with a projected lifetime of at least two decades.

The current global climate treaty, known as the Kyoto Protocol, allows developed nations and organizations to buy credits for pollution through a program known as the Clean Development Mechanism, or CDM. The credits come from financing pollution or energyminimizing technologies in the developing world. The new Bangladeshi kilns are such a CDM program registered with the UNFCCC.

And how many bricks will the new units provide? When the remaining 16 units come are all on line over the next few years, the clean kilns will be churning out a million a day. Thats a lot of bricks. What is the current scientific consensus on the conclusions reached by Drs. Mann, Bradley and Hughes? Referring to the hockey stick propagated in UN IPCC 2001 by Michael Mann.

Ans: Based on the literatu buy cheap isabel marant sneakers re we have reviewed, there is no overarching consensus on MBH98/99. As analyzed in our social network, there is a tightly knit group of individuals who passionately believe in their thesis. Wegman, George Mason University, David W. Scott, Rice University, and Yasmin H. Said, The Johns Hopkins University with the contributions of John T. Rigsby, III, Naval Surface Warfare Center, and Denise M. Reeves, MITRE Corporation. buy cheap isabel marant sneakers