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Published: Wednesday 21 August, 2013

wedge trainers 2013 wedge trainers 2013 Arctic ice melting fast in summer sun



New Arctic sea wedge trainers 2013 ice is now so perilously thin on average that it melts under the sunshine of clear summer skies it once could survive, American researchers conclude in a study published today. research team.



Research has linked the thinning of Arctic ice to warmer average temperatures caused by rising levels of greenhouse gases from human activities. submarines indicate a widespread reduction in sea ice thickness of 40 per cent since 1960.



The melting is also increased because the darker surface of open water absorbs the suns rays as heat rather than reflecting them back into space like ice and snow.



The discovery of this additional vulnerability significantly ratchets up the prospects of international shipping within a decade through the fragile Canadian Arctic archipelago for months every year. National Center for Atmospheric Research linked last summers record loss of sea ice to unusual cloudless weather in June and July that allowed the sun to relentlessly beat down on firstyear ice formed over the previous winter.



Yet such clear skies were not wedge trainers 2013 unprecedented, according to historical records going back to 1946. Five times since then the Arctic skies had been even more cloudfree than last summer, yet without the massive shrinking of sea ice cover.



Firstyear ice makes up the bu wedge trainers 2013 lk of the floating Arctic sea ice.



But last summer only 13 per cent of this firstyear ice survived the summer melt, instead of the customary 30 per cent. The 4.1 million kilometres of old ice remaining by September was the lowest since accurate satellite measurements began in 1979.



Kay and her colleagues calculated that in three months the increase in sunshine sped up the surface melting of the ice by an extra onethird of a metre as well as accelerating the thinning from below by raising water temperatures by more than 2C.



David Barber, a top Canadian expert, applauded the findings for helping improve the computer models that predict the future pattern of Arctic sea ice. Increased shortwave flux sunshine will play a very important role in the melt of sea ice, Barber said in an email from the research icebreaker Amundsen in the western Arctic.



The landmark study was made possible by new cloudprofiling radar and laserbased detectors that began sending back readings from NASA satellites in June 2006. wedge trainers 2013

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