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bags online outlet bags online outlet ´╗┐Eustasis definition of Eustasis in the Free Online Encyclopedia

sea level, the level of the sea, which serves as the datum used for measurement of land elevations and ocean depths. Theoretically, one would expect sea level to be a fixed and permanent horizontal surface on the face of the earth, and as a starting approximation, this is true. However, a number of factors operate to cause variations in sea level ranging up to several meters from place to place and to cause longterm global variations, often severe enough to cause flooding and damage to coastal zones. Locally the levels of the surface of the worlds oceans are disturbed by winddriven waves and tides tide, alternate and regular rise and fall of sea level in oceans and other large bodies of water. These changes are caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon and, to a lesser extent, of the sun on the earth.Click the link for more information. . Sea level therefore fluctuates in periods ranging from seconds to a year as a result of these factors. Thus for some purposes it is necessary to know the mean sea level MSL in a particular area, determined by averaging the elevations of the seas surface as measured by mechanical tide gauges over long periods of time. A number of other factors result in sealevel differences between one place or time and another. These may complement or counteract one another to result in a net rise or fall in mean sea level at a particular time and place. These factors include water temperature and salinity, air pressure, change of season, the amount of runoff from streams, and the amount of water stored as ice or snow on land. Characteristics of the earth also cause differences in sea level. Satellite measurements of the gravity field have shown that the earth is not a perfectly smooth sphere, making defining sealevel measurements difficult. Worldwide, or eustatic, sea levels have changed over time, such as the last ice age when sea level was as much as 333 ft 100 m lower in many areas than today. These changes are due to a multitude of reasons. Past transgression or rise or regression or lowering of the seas have been caused mainly by the addition or removal of water from continental ice caps. Such sealevel fluctuations may be due to changes in climate climate, average condition of the atmosphere near the earths surface over a long period of time, taking into account temperature, precipitation see rain, humidity, wind, barometric pressure, and other phenomena.Click the link for more information. that cause the ice to melt or accumulate. Theories of climate change include differences in carbon dioxide or oxygen levels, volcanic activity, or a change in the suns energy. The increase in carbon dioxide caused by the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation of tropical rain forests may one day increase the overall temperatures on the earth, thus causing a rise in sea level. When the suns rays warm the earth, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap the radiation, causing a greenhouse effect and global warming global warming, the gradual increase of the temperature of the earths lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. Global warming and its effects are also referred to as climate change.Click the link for more information. The sea level at any bags online outlet location changes constantly with changes in tides, atmospheric pressure, and wind conditions. Longerterm changes are influenced by changes in the Earths climates. Consequently, the level is better defined as mean sea level, the height of the sea surface averaged over all stages of the tide over a long period of time.

sea level the level of the surface of the sea with respect to the land, taken to be the mean level between high and low tide, and used as a standard base for measuring heights and depths

sea level geology The level of the surface of the ocean; especially, the mean level halfway between h bags online outlet igh and low tide, used as a standard in reckoning land elevation or sea depths.

Sea Level the position that the surface of seas and oceans would assume if uninfluenced by tides, waves, or swells, measured as the vertical distance between the water surface and a reference point on land. Sea level is classified as instantaneous, tidal, daily mean, monthly mean, annual mean, and longterm mean.

Sea level is constantly changing under the influence of wind disturbances, tides, the heating and cooling of the ocean surface, atmospheric pressure fluctuations, precipitation and evaporation, and river and glacial runoff. Longterm mean sea level, however, is not affected by these factors; it is determined by the distribution of gravity and by the uneven spatial distribution of such hydrometeorological characteristics as water density and atmospheric pressure. Longterm mean sea level, which is constant at any given point, is used as a reference level from which land elevations are measured. In order to determine the depths of seas with minimal tidal variation, longterm mean sea level is taken as zero depth, from which depths are calculated in accordance with navigational requirements.

In the USSR, absolute elevations on the earth surface are measured from the longterm mean sea level of the Baltic Sea, which is read off from the z bags online outlet ero point of the tide gage at Kronstadt. bags online outlet