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Published: Tuesday 20 August, 2013

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Burning fossil fuels for transportation, energy production, and to operate factories, produces carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is most abundant and contributes most to the trapping of heat. Landfills and grazing animals release methane, fertilizers and refrigeration services release nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide store more heat than carbon dioxide but are less abundant. Most scientists believe that human activity is strongly influencing global warming through our increased output of these greenhouse gases.

However, not everyone is sold on climate change or what used to be called global warming. According to Bill and Als Global Warming Circus, an article written in 11/07/1993 in Forbes magazine, global warming was a political move designed to alarm the population into giving their money to yet another political party, most scientists being on federal payroll for the results rather than the reasearch. The article admitted to increased levels of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and a slight increase in the temperature. But the reasons for the warming were still considered a mystery, most likely due to n longchamp bag uk sale atural fluctuations and an increase in solar output.

Hoax or not, the perceived climate change continued to progress enough to lead to the formation of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. It was negotiated in December, 1997 and became enforced in 2005. The goal is to lower overall emissions from six greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs calculated as an average over the fiveyear period of 200812. National targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.

By 2001 the perception had changed slightly. On June 18, 2001, President Bush presented to the public the latest information on climate change as delivered to him by his Cabinet after a 10 week study of the latest scientific data. The president recognized the fact that temperature had risen by .6 degrees Celsius over the past century. Previous data showed temperature rising from the 1890s to the 1940s, dropping from the 1940s to the 1970s, and rising sharply since the 1970s. He agreed that greenhouse gasses had been accumulating in our atmosphere since the industrial revolution largely due to human activity. But according to the scientists who conducted the studies, past or future influence of greenhouse gases on temperatures or at what point these levels become detrimental to life, could not be accurately predicted.

President Bush did not enlist the United States in the Kyoto protocol. While the United States was at the time the largest carbon dioxide contributor, growing economies like China second at the time and India were both exempted from the restrictions of the Kyoto Protocol. He also reminded us that the US spent $18 billion on climate research, more than 16 other nations combined. He believed the mandates would have a negative impact on the American economy and lead to many layoffs of workers and a rise in prices of consumer goods. Incidentally, these things happened despite our lack longchamp bag uk sale of participation in this initiative to reduce pollution. Paul Krugman of the New York Times writes in longchamp bag uk sale Droughts, Floods, and Food:

Consider the case of wheat, whose price has almost doubled since the summer. The immediate cause of the wheat price spike is obvious: world production is down sharply. Department of Agriculture data, reflects a sharp plunge in the former Soviet Union. And we know what thats about: a record heat wave and drought, which pushed Moscow temperatures above 100 degrees for the first time ever.

Perhaps environment calamity rather than environmental protection leads to poor economies. Polar caps are melting, animals which live in cold climates are dwindling in numbers penguins, polar bears or having to migrate further north fox, plants, sea levels are slowly rising, certain types of insects are increasing dramatically in numbers, etc.

Almost two decades later from when climate change was deemed a hoax, the latest hard data on climate change was delivered at a congressional testimony on 12022009, by John P. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President of the United States. He stated that the primary cause of the observed changes in our environment are due to carbon dioxide CO2 and other greenhouse gasses produced by factories, vehicles, power plants, deforestation, etc. Over the past 50 years average air temperature in the United States had risen by more than 2F, average rainfall increased by 5%, intervals between rainfall in dry regions had increased, there was a 600% increase in area burned by fires, there were more outbreaks of pests due to longer breeding seasons, there was an increase in number and severity of hurricanes, an average global water level increase of 8 inches over the last century. He points out that the 11 hottest years ever recoded occurred from 1997 onwards and that the rate of sea level rise in the past decade has doubled since the 20th century.

Perhaps mathematical models cant quite predict the details, but basic logic still works:

1. Greenhouse gasses make things hot; the more, the hotter.

2. We have been producing increasing amounts of greenhouse gasses.

3. Temperatures have been getting hotter 2 deg. Over the past 50 years. What happens when we add more greenhouse gasses? Go back to sentence 1.

For those who follow that logic, reduction of greenhouse gasses emissions would at least stop heating things up, if not cool things down again.

Solar, wind, geothermal energy, biofuels, are just a few sources of clean energy.

In addition we can increase efficiency of all machinery to decrease amount of use of fossil fuels and decrease carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, we can increase the amount of carbon sink, such as trees and plants. Vegetation stores tons of carbon dioxide, lessening its detrimental effects. But there is a word of caution there as well. As mentioned on the National Geographic site, we must still ensure that we do not abuse this gift that plants and trees give us as this process can also malfunction and even stop functioning. It is conceivable that they may also turn and at some point begin to emit carbon dioxide.

Where are the floods, droughts, extreme weather, and record rainfalls that were scoffed at in 1993? Whatever the cause, no one is rolling their eyes at the no longer imagined natural disasters.

Bush, G. W. 2001. Remarks on global climate change. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Retrieved from Everglades University. Website:Congressional Testimony 2009, December 2. State of climate change.

Retrieved from Everglades University. Website:Forbes Magazine 1997, November 3. Bill and Als global warming circus. Retrieved from Everglades University. Website: longchamp bag uk sale