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Published: Saturday 20 July, 2013

canada goose womens coat canada goose womens coat Does a car with a hybrid engine and Lithium batteries pollute more than a car with conventional technology

You hear a lot of claims that, once you include manufacturing and battery replacement, hybrids pollute more than an efficient, more conventional engine. Are there any endtoend studies measuring any type of pollution for both types of vehicles, which demonstrate that one is superior, even when the manufacturing and pollution to generate electricity is included for consideration?

Note, Im not talking about comparisons to Hummers.

If you asked about Nickel Metal Hybrid batteries, the answer would be extremely easy. A large amount of studies have been done with these, usually concluding that they have lifespan comparable to those internal To cite the 100,000Mile Evaluation of the Toyota RAV4 EV study,

The fivevehicle test is demonstrating the longterm durability of Nickel Metal Hydride batteries and

of electric drivetrains. Only slight performance degradation has been observed to date with the

highest mileage vehicles. Test data provide strong evidence that all five vehicles will exceed the

100,000mile mark and SCEs positive experience points to the very canada goose womens coat strong likelihood of a 130,000 to

150,000mile battery and drivetrain operational life. This is achieved by full or mostly full range use

after every charge. EVs can therefore match or exceed the lifecycle miles of comparable internalAs such, the reduction of greenhouse gases is simply a net benefit for the environment. However, you asked for lithiumion batteries. That makes the answer harder to answer. Lithiumion batteries are used in hybrid cars since only very recently. Little information is available on the subject.

Dont take my word for it. Its the first thing said in the only peerreviewed study I could find on the subject, published in August 2010:

Batterypowered electric cars BEVs play a key role in future mobility scenarios. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of the production, use and disposal of the lithium ion Liion battery. This makes it difficult to compare the environmental impacts of BEVs with those of internal combustion engine cars ICEVs.

The study made several assumptions that were favorable to ICEVs:

Used a car more energy efficient than the average car sold in Europe in 2009. They used 5.2 L of gasoline per 100 km, instead of 5.7 L of diesel /100 km 6.6 L of gasoline /100 km.

All expenditures for the exploitation of the lithium salts were allocated to the lithium salts, even though the saline brine yields other byproduct as well.

All the burden from production are allocated to the first life of each product even though the product might be reused or recycled. As explained in the study, this assumption heavily penalizes BEVs since recycling of electric batteries is high and since recycling of lithium is more energy efficient than production of it.

In spite of that, electric cars perform far better than conventional cars on all four indicators abiotic depletion potential, global warming potential, cumulative energy demand, and ecoindicator 99:

All the facts taken together, the results of the LCA, the various sensitivity analyses, the modeling applied for EOL, the assumption for the used electricity mix, etc., suggest that Emobility is en canada goose womens coat vironmentally beneficial compared to conventional mobility. The Liion battery plays a minor role in the assessment of the environmental burden of EMobility. Thus, a Liion battery in an BEV does not lead to an overcompensation of the potential benefits of the higher efficiency of BEV compared to an ICEV.

They note, however, that its not always necessarily always the case. A few very small and efficient internal combustion engine vehicles can perform as well as electric cars:

A break even analysis shows that an ICEV would need to consume less than 3.9 L/100km to cause lower CED than a BEV or less than 2.6 L/100km to cause a lower EI99 H/A score. Consumptions in this range are achieved by some small and very efficient diesel ICEVs, for example, from Ford and Volkswagen 13, 39.

They also note that the means by which the energy is produced influences the how environmentallyfriendly BEVs are. The study used the average electricity production mix in Europe to give a general idea. If electricity comes from an average hard coal power plant, the environmental burden is increased by 13.4%. On the other hand, if the electricity comes from hydropower plants, the environmental burden is decreased by 40.2%. As such, as countries move toward green energy, the environmental burden of electric cars will decrease.

The study does not address the cost of manufacturing the automobiles, but those costs are not significant. As a recent Argonne National Lab study concluded that, while hybrid cars cost more to produce, hybrid cars make up for their greater manufacture energy costs by being more environmentallyfriendly on the road especially if recycled m canada goose womens coat aterials are used in the vehicles fabrication.

To cite the studys conclusion,

The energy use and GHG emissions that result from vehicle production and disposal of advancedpowertrain vehicles HEV and FCV may be greater than those for ICEVs because of 1 the use of energyintensive materials in the fuel cell system of the FCV, and 2 the increased use of aluminum in both the HEV and FCV. However, the use of recycled materials can reduce these impacts. Conversely, the use of energyintensive materials such as aluminum and carbon fiber composites does not necessarily increase the vehiclecycle energy use and GHG emissions of lightweight vehicles; with a reduction in total weight, the results are about the same and could be improved with additional recycling.

To put vehiclecycle results into a broad perspective, we conducted a total energycycle analysis that included the vehiclecycle, fuelcycle, and vehicleoperation stages. Our vehiclecycle analysis revealed that lightweight materials can reduce the weight of a vehicle and improve its fuel economy, but that production of these materials can be energy intensive if recycled materials are not used. Our total energycycle analysis further shows that, when examining vehicle technologies and lightweight materials on a total energycycle basis, there can be a significant net benefit in terms of energy use and emissions reduction by substituting lightweight materials for conventional materials.

This article explains that if the goal is to reduce aggregate gasoline consumption, the most savings is found by spreading smaller batteries over more cars, rather than larger batteries over few cars. This is because a scarcity of battery materials limits production.

The greatest savingsperbatterymaterials comes from upgrading a gasoline cars battery such that it can handle the strain of turning the car off every time it stops. Upgrading N cars with such batteries saves more gasoline than upgrading proportionally fewer cars as hybrids or electrics. canada goose womens coat

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