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where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online ´╗┐Anthopogenic global warming definition of Anthopogenic global warming in the Free Online Encyclopedia



global warming, the gradual increase of the temperature of the earths lower atmosphere as a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools.



. Click the link for more information. . Global warming and its effects are also referred to as climate change.



The temperature of the atmosphere near the earths surface is warmed through a natural process called the greenhouse effect. Visible, shortwave light comes from the sun to the earth, passing unimpeded through a blanket of thermal, or greenhouse, gases composed largely of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Infrared radiation infrared radiation, electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range from c.75 10 cm to c.100,000 10 cm 0.000075 cm.



. Click the link for more information. reflects off the planets surface toward space but does not easily pass through the thermal blanket. Some of it is trapped and reflected downward, keeping the planet at an average temperature suitable to life, about 60 16 in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution has produced additional quantities of the natural greenhouse gases plus smaller quantities of chlorofluorocarbons chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and



. Click the link for more information. and other more potent greenhouse gases, augmenting the thermal blanket. It is gen where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online erally accepted that this increase in the quantity of greenhouse gases is trapping more heat and increasing global temperatures, making a process that has been beneficial to life potentially disruptive and harmful. During the 20th cent., the atmospheric temperature rose 1.1 0.6 and sea level rose several inches. Some projected, longerterm results of global warming i where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online nclude melting of polar ice, with a resulting rise in sea level and increase in coastal flooding; disruption of drinking water supplies dependent on snow melts; profound changes in agriculture due to climate change; extinction of species as ecological niches disappear; more frequent tropical storms; and an increased incidence of tropical diseases.



Among factors that may be contributing to global warming are the burning of coal and petroleum products sources of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone; deforestation, which increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; methane gas released in animal waste; and increased cattle production, which contributes to deforestation, methane production, and use of fossil fuels.



Much of the debate surrounding global warming has centered on the accuracy of scientific predictions concerning future warming. To predict global climatic trends, climatologists accumulate large historical databases and use them to create computerized models that simulate the earths climate climate, average condition of the atmosphere near the earths surface over a long period of time, taking into account temperature, precipitation see rain, humidity, wind, barometric pressure, and other phenomena.



. Click the link for more information. . The validity of these models has been a subject of controversy. Skeptics say that the climate is too complicated to be accurately modeled, and that there are too many unknowns. Some also question whether the observed climate changes might simply represent normal fluctuations in global temperature. Nonetheless, for some time there has been general agreement that at least part of the observed warming is the result of human activity, and that the problem needs to be addressed. In 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCED or Earth Summit, an 11day meeting held in June, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to discuss the global conflict between economic development and environmental protection.



. Click the link for more information. , over 150 nations signed a binding declaration on the need to reduce global warming.



In 1994, however, a UN scientific advisory panel, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, concluded that reductions beyond those envisioned by the treaty would be needed to avoid global warming. The following year, the advisory panel forecast a rise in global temperature of from 1.44 to 6.3 0.8 by 2100 if no action is taken to cut down on the production of greenhouse gases, and a rise of from 1 to 3.6 0.5 even if action is taken because of already released gases that will persist in the atmosphere. A 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, based on a threeyear study, termed global warming unequivocal and said that most of the change was most likely due to human activities.



A UN Conference on Climate Change, held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 resulted in an international agreement to fight global warming, which called for reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases by industrialized nations. Not all industrial countries, however, immediately signed or ratified the accord, known as the Kyoto Protocol. In 2001 the G. W. Bush administration announced it would abandon the accord; because the United States produces about one quarter of the worlds greenhouse gases, this was regarded as a severe blow to the effort to slow global warming. Despite the American move, most other nations agreed later in the year in Bonn, Germany, and in Marrakech, Morocco on the details necessary to convert the agreement into a binding international treaty, which came into force in 2005 after ratification by more than 125 nations.



In 2002 the Bush administration proposed several voluntary measures for slowing the increase in, instead of reducing, emissions of greenhouses gases. The United States, Australia, China, India, Japan, an where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online d South Korea created 2005 an agreement outside the Kyoto Protocol that proposed to reduce emissions through the development and implementation of new technologies. The AsiaPacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate established no commitments on the part of its members; it held its first meeting in 2006. Also in 2006, California enacted legislation that called for cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 25% by 2020; the state is responsible for nearly 7% of all such emissions in the United States. President Bush called for the worlds major polluting nations to set global and national goals for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but the nonbinding nature of the proposed goals provoked skepticism from nations that favored stronger measures. The 15th UN Conference on Climate Change, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in Dec., 2009, failed to lead to a legally binding treaty on reducing global greenhousegas emissions. It had been hoped that the meeting would result in a new protocol that would replace that agreed to at Kyoto. Brown, Global Warming: Can Civilization Survive? 1997; T. G. Moore, Climate of Fear: Why We Shouldnt Worry about Global Warming 1998; S. G. Philander, Is the Temperature Rising? The Uncertain Science of Global Warming 1998; K. E. Ready, GAIA Weeps: The Crisis of Global Warming 1998; G. E. Christianson, Greenhouse: The 200Year Story of Global Warming 1999; T. Flannery, The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth 2006; E. Kolbert, Field Notes from a Catastrophe 2006; E. Linden, The Winds of Change 2006; P. Conkling et al., The Fate of Greenland: Lessons from Abrupt Climate Change 2011; B. McKibben, ed., The Global Warming Reader 2012.



global warmingIncrease in the global average surface temperature resulting from enhancement of the greenhouse effect, primarily by air pollution. Many scientists predict that such an increase in temperature would cause polar ice caps and mountain glaciers to melt rapidly, significantly raising the levels of coastal waters, and would produce new patterns and extremes of drought and rainfall, seriously disrupting food production in certain regions. Other scientists maintain that such predictions are overstated. The 1992 Earth Summit and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change attempted to address the issue of global warming, but in both cases the efforts were hindered by conflicting national economic agendas and disputes between developed and developing nations over the cost and consequences of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. where can i buy isabel marant sneakers online

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