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Published: Monday 23 September, 2013

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Paris : Earth was cooling until the end of the 19th century and a hundred years later, the planets surface was on average warmer than at any time in the previous 1,400 years, according to climate reco michael kors factory outlet website rds presented on Sunday.



In a study spanning two millennia published in Nature Geoscience, scientists said a longterm cooling trend around the world swung into reverse in the late 19th century.



In the 20th century, the average global temperature was 0.4 degrees Celsius 0.7 degrees Fahrenheit higher than that of the previous 500 years, with only Antarctica bucking the trend. Europe, for instance, was probably warmer in the first century AD than at the end of the 20th century.



The investigation is the first attempt to reconstruct temperatures over the last 2,000 years for individual continents.



Sceptics have claimed bouts of cooling or warming before the Industrial Revolution including two episodes in Europe called the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age are proof that climate variations are natural, not manmade.



The new study does not wade into the debate about greenhouse gases, but points to two planetary trends.



The first is a clear, prolonged period of cooling. It may have been caused by a combination of factors, including an increase in volcanic activity michael kors factory outlet website , with stratospheric ashes reflecting the sunlight, or a decrease in solar activity or tiny changes in Earths orbit, both of which would diminish sunlight falling on the planet.



The cooling between 0.10.3 C 0.20.6 F per thousand years, depending on the region went into reverse towards the end of the 19th century, and was followed by an intensifying period of warming in the 20th, the paper said.



Beneath this global trend over 2,000 years were episodes of continental cooling or warming, some of which were quite long.



And some continents lagged the overall planetary trend, but with the exception of Antarctica, all followed it.



Distinctive periods, such as the Medieval Warm michael kors factory outlet website Period or the Little Ice Age stand out, but do not show a globally uniform pattern on multidecadal time scales, said Heinz Wanner of the University of Bern in Switzerland, one of 78 researchers from 24 countries who took part in the project.



There are things that are common to all the regions of the planet longterm cooling, until the 19th century, followed by warming on all continents, except for Antarctica, where it is less clear, but also strong variations from one region to another, Hugues Goosse, a climatologist at Belgiums Catholic University of Leuven, told a news agency.



Previous research into climate change has pointed to a warming spurt in the 20th century and attributed it to the rise of heattrapping carbon gases emitted by burning coal, oil and gas.



The warming trend shifted up a gear in the middle of the 1970s, in line with recordbreaking levels of carbon dioxide CO2, according to this past research.



2012 saw the 36th straight year that global temperatures were above average since 1880, when scientifically acceptable records were first kept, and was the ninth or 10th warmest on record, US scientists said in January.



The temperature reconstruction published on Sunday was coordinated by a scientific initiative called the Past Global Changes PAGES 2K Network.



It brings together weather data as well as telltales of temperature variation from tree rings, pollen, corals, lake and marine sediments, ice cores and stalagmites garnered at 511 locations across seven continentalscale regions.



It may be time to start thinking about fuel rationing especially related to travel as we transition to clean energy over the coming years. And certainly government subsidies to fossil fuels should be phased out asap. Rationing was applied fairly and effectively during World War II. The current emergency is a war against our own polluting lifestyle, which in turn is in fact a war on the planet itself. michael kors factory outlet website

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