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Published: Sunday 08 September, 2013

michael kors purses online michael kors purses online ´╗┐Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques

The most popular and growing EOR technique , accounting for 50% of EOR production in the United States, involves gas injection. Gas injection has proven to be the most consistently successful technique for increasing oil production in various types of oil reservoirs. Many major oil companies have taken advantage of the gas injection technique since it was first attempted in Surry County, Texas in the 1970s.

The ultimate goal of gas injection is to restore reservoir pressure , increase oil production, and lower operating costs. One reason that this method of EOR has not seen more widespread application is the high upfront investment costs for the requisite equipment and gas components. While gas injection can result in lower operating costs, this high initial fixed cost was the barrier to entry into gas injection EOR for many smaller independent oil companies. As previously mentioned, the investment return made possible by rising oil prices has led the way for even smaller independent oil companies to get into the game as well.

Gas injection involves carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or natural gas being injected into a reservoir. Once injected, the gas expands and compels additional oil into a production wellbore where it can be extracted. The gas will subsequently dissolve into the oil and both lower the viscosity of the oil and improve the oils flow rate. In many applications of gas injection, up to twothirds of the injected carbon dioxide will return with the oil that is produced. Reinjecting the recycled carbon dioxide to release additional oil will then minimize operating costs.

Communities such as Midwest, Wyoming, are also experiencing ancillary benefits from gas injection EOR perfo michael kors purses online rmed by companies like Anadarko Petroleum. The utilization of gas injection EOR cleared the landscape of many unsightly power poles, conventional pumping wells, and power lines. Plus, michael kors purses online tons of greenhouse gases were prevented from polluting the atmosphere . As Anadarko spokesman Rick Robitaille told the Casper StarTribune, Its good for the economy. Its good for the country. Its good for the environment. Its a very positive scenario.

EOR Technique: Thermal Recovery

Thermal recovery accounts for the other half of EOR production in the United States. The thermal recovery technique is primarily utilized in the oil fields of California. Essentially, thermal recovery uses heat to improve oil flow rates. Steam will be injected into the reservoir to lower the viscosity of heavy viscous oil, allowing the oil to more easily flow th michael kors purses online rough and be extracted. Dolberry Oil estimates that steam accounts for 52% of the market methods utilized for EOR. In comparison with gas injection, carbon dioxide is at 31% and nitrogen is at 17%.

Gary Dolberry and Dolberry Oil and Gas actually have access to a proprietary steam injection thermal recovery technology that most oil production management companies do not. The technology is commonly referred to as steam slugging and involves a mixture of carbon dioxide and steam that results in roughly twice the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons in twothirds the elapsed time. Steam slugging has typically produced results in the range of ten additional barrels per day, and also provides added benefits like well bore cleaning and water disposal.

A strategy that is commonly utilized by companies who have access to steam slugging is what is called a Huff and Puff scenario. In this scenario, each well is subjected to 812 hours of injection the Huff. The well then undergoes a 1215 hour Soak period in which carbon dioxide mixes with the crude oil while nitrogen pull the oil to the lowest pressure area. Steam then provides additional pressure that produces greater oil production as the additional heat assists in loosening the crude oil in the pay zone surrounding the well. Finally , during Puff cycle, the well bore and surrounding pay zone fill with fluid that will be produced or recovered.

EOR Technique: Chemical Recovery

Another technique that is utilized in less than one percent of all EOR efforts is chemical injection, in which longchained molecules called polymers are used to increase the effectiveness of water floods. Water flooding is a widely utilized secondary EOR technique used to increase overall field output while achieving higher oil to water ratios. michael kors purses online